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Bending for bigger workpieces (far wider than a hammer head or longer than a hammer handle) I do from the outside over a round surface like a bending stock or the anvilhorn.
If needed and possible I use a softface hammer to reduce the grindingwork.
As a bending stock I use tubes or roundstock welded to a shaft.
There are different ways to use a bending stock:
Doming is a method to deform sheet metal into a 3D form by which the center of the workpiece is stretched. This stretching thins out the center of the workpiece and thats why I just use for pieces that need a smaller degree of deformation.
For Doming I use a round faced hammer or dominghammer and an anvil or a recess in a wooden block or an embossing pad.
Doming is done in multiple circular passes from the inside of the workpiece. There are two ways to do it:
In both methods you can soften the material between each pass by annealing.
Depending on the used material (for example aluminum) the workpiece will likely try to form a banana because the material acts different in the direction it was rolled than lateral to that. In this situation you just have to adjust the form by bending it after each pass.
I do the first pass very lightly just to give the material the right direction. After this first pass I increase the force to achieve the desired form.
All the deformation was achieved by thinning out the material. So the outer diameter remained the same.